Strand 2 - Historical Information on Transport and Planning Step-changes
Strand Leader: Andrew Miles
Strand 2 will seek to set the Strand 1 data in context by examining historical information on transport change and obtaining a longer perspective on how events and social forces influence significant changes in transport activity and behaviour.
There will be two elements to this work. The first will be to look through published sources and databases for information on evidence of what works and therefore what may be used to promote change in the future. Large transport infrastructure projects have historically been designed to deliver travel time savings and accessibility benefits, especially for business. Their longer term impacts on the locations of homes, jobs and other activities have rarely been studied. This contributes to our current lack of understanding about the causal relationships driving trends in development, mobility patterns and lifestyles that have resulted in increasing car dependency.
Those studies that have been completed are typically old and were only able to draw on data from the first few years after schemes were completed (Cleary and Thomas, 1973; Tyne and Wear PTE, 1985; Davoudi et al, 1993;Breheny and Hart, 1989). So, it has been left to more anecdotal approaches to attempt to understand the processes at work (Garreau, 1992). However, the expanding availability of spatial datasets increasingly allows more sophisticated analyses of transport-related behaviour (Milne et al, 2004). This strand will investigate the potential of a range of historical data sources for shedding light on the impacts of transport investment over periods in excess of 20 years.
The second element of this work will be a series of exploratory workshops with local and national planners and decision-makers, and with other individuals who have worked in our study areas, to discuss past transport changes in particular contexts and locations.
Task 2.1 - Search of Relevant Qualitative Datasets and Transport Databases for Evidence of Past Step-Changes
We will review a series of publicly available data sets which we know have significant information on transport issues. Because of CRESC’s expertise in using qualitative data to analyse change over time, many of these will be qualitative in nature, often allowing us to follow the same individuals over an extended period of time. Our work will involve extracting relevant material and making it available via appropriate qualitative software for wider analysis and dissemination. Included in our review will beexploration of databases such as the Mass Observation Archive held at the University of Sussex, research studies archived at the the Economic and Social Data Service Qualidata, previous studies of urban communities and lifestyles conducted by the project team, information from other cohort studies such as the ESRC Timescapes project (University of Leeds), as well as more obviously transport related databases such as the National Travel Survey and other UK government datasets on transport which have recently been made available through a dedicated website (www.data.gov.uk).
Task 2.2 - Coding Data and Creating a Historical Dataset
This task will take relevant data from Task 2.1, and code this data using NVivo for qualitative data. Work here will integrate with Strand 1, for example in terms of developing comparable coding schema.
Task 2.3 - Preliminary Analysis
Here the focus will be on doing initial analysis of the data, to assess if and how there have been changes in people’s transport use and how people understand change. Again, this task would work iteratively alongside work in Strand 1 so as to enable comparisons over time.
Task 2.4 - Exploratory Workshops with Stakeholder Organisations
This task will use a series of exploratory workshops with local and national planners and representatives of the business community to consider how change has occurred in particular contexts and locations in the past. Initially this would involve workshops focussed on Leeds and Manchester, including people who have had a role in the changing nature of transport in those areas over the last twenty or thirty years and working through with them how such changes occurred. These workshops would also include people with national level responsibilities who could help us to understand the effects of macro level policies and programmes on local transport planning and activity. Subsequently we would propose to widen this discussion by implementing a series of deliberative focus groups bringing together academics and practitioners from around the UK to consider the findings of our two policy workshops and help draw out a more general list of factors which have been shown to influence transport change across the UK.
Cleary E.J. & Thomas R.E. (1973). The economic consequences of the Severn Bridge and its associated motorways. Bath University Press.
Breheny M. & Eastern D.H. (1989). Promise fulfilled: the development of the M11 eastern corridor. Derrick, Wade & Waters, London.
Metro Monitoring and Development Study (1985). The impact of Metro and public transport integration in Tyne and Wear: Summary Findings. Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Executive, Newcastle.
Davoudi S. et al (1993). The longer term effects of the Tyne and Wear metro. TRL, Crowthorne.
Garreau J. (1992). Edge city: life on the new frontier. Anchor Books, New York.
Milne, D.S., Emberger, G., Stillwell, J and Unsworth, R. (2004). Providing for mobility: transport planning under pressure. In: Stillwell, J. and Unsworth, R. (eds) Twenty-first century Leeds: geographies of a regional city. Leeds University Press, Leeds.