Strand 4 - Planning for Urban Resilience
Strand Leader: Miles Tight
Strand 4 is future looking in two respects. Firstly, it will consider different planning paradigms and how these might contribute to planning practices and procedures that will better support the development of more resilient and sustainable transport futures for 2050. A comparison of these paradigms will be made in the light of results from Strands 1, 2 and 3. Secondly, Strand 4 will examine methods by which participants in planning processes can develop visions for resilient and sustainable urban futures for 2050 which go significantly beyond a “business as usual” approach. Focus will be put upon how the results from Strand 3 can help in the development of these methods. Both of these elements of work will involve a mixture of review and workshops with academics and transport practitioners.
Description of work
Task 4.1 – Planning paradigms to support the development of resilient, sustainable urban futures for 2050
This task will build on outputs from Strands 1, 2, and 3, and, through a review of appropriate literature and a series of workshops with transport planners and decision makers (at both national and local levels), will seek to understand the limitations of existing planning practices and procedures in terms of creating resilient and sustainable long term futures. The review will cover basic theories of planning such as instrumental rationality, communicative rationality, incrementalism and agonistic planning, using analysis by, amongst others, Allmendinger (2002), Fainstein (2005) and Gunder (2003). The workshops will consider what kinds of planning procedures and practices would most effectively enable local and national decision-makers to consider step changes in the sustainability of urban transport systems and the kinds of supporting tools that would most effectively help them to bring about such changes. This work will link particularly to Strand 5 through informing the latter about alternative planning paradigms and about the demand for (and potential characteristics of) new transport planning support tools for each of these paradigms.
For this task we envisage four workshops, to be held in different parts of the country. One of these will be focussed on the Leeds/Manchester region and another in London (in order to attract participants with national level responsibility for transport planning). The locations of the further two workshops will be decided at a later date.
Task 4.2 – Visioning for sustainable and resilient urban areas in 2050
This task will examine the usefulness of visioning techniques for the planning paradigms identified in Task 4.1. This exercise will include the construction of a “base set” of visions of 2050 which combine resilience with sustainability, using the outputs from Strand 3 (which are in turn derived from the data from Strand 1 and Strand 2). Consideration will then be made as to how this base set of visions can be used by transport planners, decision-makers and members of the public in different types of planning processes. Specifically, the focus of the work will be on providing the means to adapt the base set of visions to develop “participant-generated” visions which incorporate step-changes from the current situation with respect to the transport system. The task will include a workshop with planners and academics to discuss the feasibility, workability and plausibility of the 2050 visions developed, and how these visions might be included in alternative planning processes. This work will also draw upon a review of relevant published sources of information on future visions developed in other studies. Key initial possibilities here include the Rees Jeffreys Futures project (Tight et al, 2000), the OECD Environmentally Sustainable Transport project (OECD, 2002), the EU funded POSSUM project (Banister et al, 2000), VIBAT (Hickman and Banister, 2007) and VIBAT London, the Vision 2030 project (www.transportvisions.org.uk), government Foresight reports (www.foresight.gov.uk) and the ongoing EPSRC funded project Visions of the role of walking and cycling in 2030 (Tight et al, 2009).
Allmendinger, P. (2002) Towards a post-positivist typology of planning theory. Planning Theory 1(1)
Banister, D. with D. Stead, P. Steen, J. Akerman, K. Dreborg, P. Nijkamp and R.S. Tappeser (2000) European Transport Policy and Sustainable Mobility. London: Spon.
Fainstein, S. (2005) Planning theory and the city. Journal of Planning Education and Research 25.
Gunder, M. (2003) Passionate planning for the others´ desire: an agonistic response to the dark side of planning. Progress in Planning 60.
Hickman, R. And Banister, D. (2007) Looking over the horizon: Transport and reduced CO2 emissions in the UK by 2030. Transport Policy Volume 14(5), pp 377-387.
Tight, M. Banister, D, Day, A, Drinkwater, D, Givoni, M, Guehnemann, A, Kimble, M, Macmillen, J, Miles, A, Moore, N, Newton, E, Ngoduy, D, Timms, P And Watling, D. (2009) Visions of walking and cycling in 2030. Walk21 Conference, New York, October 6th – 8th.
Tight, M.R, Bristow, A.L., Page, M and Milne, D. (2000) Transport: A vision for the future. Landor Publishing.